AI's Role in the Future of Forest Conservation

Written by: Ryan Smith 


Forests cover about 31% of the world's land area (FRA 2020), playing a critical role in maintaining ecological balance, supporting biodiversity, and providing livelihoods for millions of people. Yet these vital ecosystems are under unprecedented threat. In the coming decades, the diminishing availability of productive land, competition from other land uses, and climate change will increasingly place global forests under threat (Kissinger, Herold, & De Sy, 2012).


Artificial Intelligence (AI) may serve as a powerful tool to reverse the adverse effects of human activity on forested areas. This technology's capacity to analyze vast datasets to make insightful predictions can significantly enhance our approach to forest management. In doing so, AI propels us towards a sustainable coexistence with these vital ecosystems, ensuring their preservation for future generations.



What is AI?

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a branch of computer science dedicated to creating machines capable of performing tasks that typically require human intelligence. At its core, AI involves the development of algorithms and computational processes that enable computers to learn from data, make decisions, and solve problems. This technology spans several fields, including machine learning, natural language processing, robotics, and computer vision, each contributing to the vast capabilities of AI systems. In forest conservation solutions, machine learning, a subset of AI, has become instrumental in analyzing complex environmental data, enabling predictive modeling for monitoring deforestation and land use changes, predicting and managing wildfires, and species distribution mapping (Perry et al., 2022).


Monitoring Deforestation and Land Use Changes

The world has a total forest area of 4.06 billion hectares (ha) of forest as of 2020 (FRA 2020). Regulating activities that result in canopy loss such as logging, agricultural expansion and mining is essential for protecting forest ecosystems. Ensuring regulatory compliance is crucial but is often challenged by the high costs associated with manual monitoring. Employing AI solutions can help to reduce labour cost on compliance monitoring and improve accuracy. By processing vast amounts of satellite data, AI can pinpoint areas of deforestation, track the expansion of agricultural lands into forested territories, and detect signs of illegal logging activities. This real-time surveillance allows for immediate action, facilitating interventions before irreversible damage occurs.


Predicting and Managing Wildfires

The advent of AI has opened new horizons in predicting and managing wildfires, a threat that is becoming increasingly frequent and severe due to climate change (Flannigan et al., 2009). By harnessing the power of AI algorithms, we can now analyze vast datasets encompassing weather patterns, historical fire occurrences, and other environmental factors, providing predictive insight necessary to foresee wildfire outbreaks. This predictive capability is not just about foreseeing the occurrence of fires but also about understanding their potential severity, spread, and impact on ecosystems and human settlements.


Biodiversity Protection and Wildlife Conservation

It is widely accepted that the emergence of the human industrial era is responsible for the ongoing 6th global mass extinction event. Vertebrate species loss over the last century is up to 100 times higher than the background rate, indicating that a sixth mass extinction is already underway (Ceballos et al., 2015). Implementing conservation strategies around our forests is vital for the protection of our biodiversity. The identification of key habitat features to better understand species presence, abundance and distribution is essential to effectively implement targeted conservation strategies. Gathering this data at a landscape level is very costly.


AI plays a crucial role in mitigating these costs and enhancing the effectiveness of conservation strategies.  AI can analyze vast amounts of data from satellite imagery, drones, and sensor networks to identify key habitat features with unprecedented speed and accuracy. This capability enables conservationists to monitor wildlife populations, track changes in habitat quality, and predict potential threats to biodiversity with a level of detail that was previously unattainable.


Case Study

The Muskoka Integrated Watershed Management project located in Central Ontario was completed by Dougan & Associates in 2023. The project leveraged advanced AI technologies, particularly in GIS modeling and machine learning, to enhance watershed management and species conservation.  By employing deep learning and GIS modeling, powered by high-resolution LiDAR data and multispectral imagery, the project achieved detailed classification of terrestrial, wetland, and aquatic systems. This precise land cover mapping facilitated the identification of ecologically significant areas, including habitats for rare and endangered species. Machine learning models were employed to predict potential locations for select species based on their habitat preferences and known occurrences. This methodology not only refined the understanding of land cover types within the watershed but also enhanced habitat suitability models for wildlife conservation. The combined use of cutting-edge technologies ensured an accurate and comprehensive assessment of natural capital, crucial for integrated watershed management and ecological preservation.


Call to Action

The potential for AI to have a positive impact on forest conservation is profound, yet its application in this field is still in the early stages of adoption. To effectively utilize AI for forest conservation, a collaborative and holistic strategy is vital. Collaborative investment is needed from the private and public sector tailored for environmental preservation, involving interdisciplinary efforts that blend computer and ecological sciences. Policy frameworks must evolve to support AI's role in forest management, encouraging the open sharing of environmental data and enforcing AI-driven compliance monitoring.






Ceballos, G., Ehrlich, P. R., Barnosky, A. D., García, A., Pringle, R. M., & Palmer, T. M. (2015). Accelerated modern human-induced species losses: Entering the sixth mass extinction. Science Advances, 1(5), e1400253.


Flannigan, M., Krawchuk, M., Groot, W., Wotton, B., & Gowman, L. (2009). Implications of changing climate for global wildland fire. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 18, 483-507.


Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2020). Global Forest Resources Assessment 2020: Key findings. FAO.


G. L. W. Perry, R. Seidl, A. M. Bellvé, W. Rammer, An outlook for deep learning in ecosystem science. Ecosystems 25, 1700–1718 (2022).


Kissinger, G., M. Herold, V. De Sy. Drivers of Deforestation and Forest Degradation: A Synthesis Report for REDD+ Policymakers. Lexeme Consulting, Vancouver Canada, August 2012.

Guest Blog - Reducing the sales of invasive plant species in Canada – to safeguard biodiversity

By: Canadian Coalition for Invasive Plant Regulation 


This Invasive Species Awareness Week, we bring you a guest blog by the Canadian Coalition for Invasive Plant Regulation (CCIPR).


Invasive species management is an important part of native species restoration, if the landscape is dominated by aggressive invaders, all the native plants we restore will be drowned out! CCIPR works to stop invasive plants at the source, by stopping sales of the worst culprits in plant nurseries for the horticultural trade.


Read more below and on their website,



The global trade in ornamental nursery stock is the primary pathway for the introduction of nonindigenous invasive plants in Canada. Those invasive plants can threaten biodiversity and diminish its associated ecological, economic, social, cultural, and intrinsic values. 


To protect our economy, environment and public health from invasive plant species, Canada needs to:

  • Improve policies and legislation.  
  • Establish a permanent national body with responsibility for nonindigenous invasive species.  
  • Create a science-based national plant risk assessment database. This database would provide the name(s) and description of each nonindigenous plant sold in Canada along with its regional ranking as a high, medium, low, or an insignificant invasion risk.   
  • Require that all imports of plants new to Canada undergo risk assessments. 
  • Ban the sale and movement of high-risk invasive plant species, where regionally appropriate.  
  • Require labelling to identify and educate the public about lower-risk invasive plants.  
  • Provide continued and stable funding for public education.   
  • Incentivize the adoption of the National Voluntary Code of Conduct for the Ornamental Horticultural Industry.    

The number of invasive plant species in Canada is steadily growing. With that growth, the management costs and  environmental damage rise. Canada needs to act now to reduce the potential damages and the price tag for management and mitigation.  


At the federal level, invasive plant prevention focuses on safeguarding Canada’s food supply–the plants and animals in the agricultural sector. While laudable and necessary, current regulations fail to safeguard our natural flora and fauna. Canada needs to develop new federal regulatory tools. Canada needs legislation similar to the European Union (EU) act for the prevention and management of the introduction and spread of invasive alien species (1143/2014). This act aims to minimize the adverse effects of invasive species on biodiversity and related ecosystem services, as well as human health and safety. In addition, Canada could pass legislation requiring a risk assessment paid for by importers, before any plants not yet present are introduced, as is required by Australia’s Quarantine Proclamation (1998). Only with the proper legal underpinnings can Canada restrict the trade of highly invasive ornamental plants.  

To comply with international conventions and agreements, any trade restrictions must be based on sound scientific risk assessments. Therefore, in addition to enhancing its regulatory framework, Canada needs to improve its scientific capacity and develop a robust national database.  An impact ranking system like I- Rank should be used to categorize invasive plants as High, Medium, Low, or Insignificant risks to biodiversity.

A national database would ensure that reliable information is available to support the activities of federal and regional governments, Indigenous communities, and non-governmental organizations. A permanent federal body dedicated to nonindigenous invasive species is needed to clarify ‘who-does-what’ and coordinate interdepartmental and inter-agency cooperation at both the federal and provincial/territorial levels. 

Education and public awareness are necessary for the successful prevention and management of invasive plants. This means all levels of government should provide ongoing and stable funding for programs that raise awareness, build knowledge and skills, and change attitudes and behaviours. An informed public is more likely to support and promote the control of invasive plants.   

To this end, consumers deserve clear, consistent labelling that tells them what they need to know when shopping for plants. For those lower-risk invasive plants, sellers should be required to:    

  • Inform consumers the plant poses potential risks to the environment,
  • Provide recommendations for alternative noninvasive plant choices, and     
  • Describe measures necessary to reduce the risk of spread.   

Informed consumers are more likely to understand the risks posed by invasive plants and reduce their spread.

An effective strategy for the prevention and management of invasive plants will require a combination of legally binding and voluntary approaches. Sustainable forest management standards have been successful in promoting comprehensive environmental and social standards in the forestry sector. Similarly, the ornamental horticultural sector should be encouraged to comply with legislation and reduce the numbers of invasive plants sold in Canada. While there may be short term losses in a small segment of the sector, there will also be opportunities to strengthen the sector and develop a “greener” industry that capitalizes on regional botanical uniqueness. 

Reducing the sale of invasive plant species in Canada and protecting Canada’s biodiversity will require a multi-faceted approach. Improving legislation and oversight, building a knowledge base, providing education and consumer awareness programs together can form the basis of a successful strategy. By following this strategy, Canada can help to safeguard nature, which is essential for human health and well-being, economic prosperity, food safety and security.


Learn more, here:

The Mighty Benefits of Tiny Forests

From CBC - 


"A tiny forest was on display at the Canada Convention Centre in Vancouver last week, as part of an intiative by Canadian Geographic and Network of Nature. The planting method is designed to encourage trees to grow more quickly as they fight for light, quickly creating more tree cover, and habitat for birds and insects. (Ben Nelms/CBC)" 


To read the full article on CBC, click here.

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